17 December 2005
This file is offered as work in progress in converting the book trade entries in a selection of trade directories for the year 1817 into a table to permit searching and sorting by name, trade and address. This section is the start of the alphabetical coverage of Underhill’s directory for that year. It will later be correlated with the address section of Johnstone’s directory.
Abbott, Thomas, stationer & rag merchant, 1, High Street, St Giles, 1817U
Abraham, Elizabeth, printer & Price Current Office, 1, Clements Lane, 1817U
Abraham, John, law stationer, Middle Temple Lane, 1817U
Ackermann, Rudolph, printseller, 101, Strand, 1817U
Adams & Butt, wholesale stationers, Great Windmill Street, 1817U
Adams & Co., stationers &c, 79, Strand, 1817U
Adams, James, printer, 17, Seymour Place, North Euston Square, 1817U
Adams & Son, stationers & rag merchants, 19, Great Windmill Street, 1817U
Adlard, James, printer, 39, Duke Street, 1817U
Adlard James, printer, 23, Bartholomew Close, 1817U
Adolpho, Francis, engraver, 134, Oxford Street, 1817U
Ady, Ann, bookseller & stationer, 71, Houndsditch, 1817U
Aires, John, pial dealer & rag warehouse, Barrets Court, Edward Street, 1817U
Akerman, Stephen, stationer & rag warehouse, 43, Chandos Street, Covent Garden, 1817U
Aldersey, J., wholesale stationer, 11, Cloak Lane, Dowgate Hill, 1817U
Aldos, Hannah, stationer & toy shop, 9, Pavement, Moorfields, 1817U
Allason, William, bookseller & stationer, 31, New Bond Street, 1817U
Allaway, J., bookseller, 53, Rathbone Place, 1817U
Allen Edward, engraver, 3, Lower Phillimore Place, Kensington, 1817U
Allen, George, bookseller, Greenwich, 1817U
Allen, Michael, printer, 15, Paternoster Row, 1817U
Alley, W., stationer, 46, Chiswell Street, Finsbury Square, 1817U
Allison, W., stationer, 31, New Bond Street, 1817U
Anderson, John, bookseller, 40, West Smithfield, 1817U
Anderson, William, bookseller, 186, Piccadilly, 1817U
Andrews, George, carver, gilder & printseller, 7, Charing Cross, 1817U
Annan, William, bookbinder, bookseller, printer & stationer, High Street, Croydon, 1817U
Ansell, Charles, snuff & paper manufactory, Carshalton, 1817U
Ansell, William, silver & copperplate engraver, 9, Bull and Mouth Street, 1817U
Ansell, William, stationer &c, Richmond, 1817U
Answorth, Henry, law stationer, Cliffords Inn, Fleet Street, 1817U
Applebee, William, stationer, 11 &12, Tothill Street, Westminster, 1817U
Applegarth, A. & J., wholesale stationers, 32 , James Street, Covent Garden, 1817U
Appleyard, Flather, newsman & bookseller, 1, Duke Street, Adelphi, 1817U
Arch & Co., London Price Current, 2, Finch Lane, Cornhill, 1817U
Arch, John & Arthur, booksellers & stationers, 61, Cornhill, 1817U
Archer, N., printer & stationer, 6, Long Lane, West Smithfield, 1817U
Armstrong & Matthews, stationers, 38, High Holborn, 1817U
Arnold, A., bookseller, 56, Mortimer Street, 1817U
Arnold, J., bookseller, 227, Piccadilly, 1817U
Arnott, J., bookbinder, 3, Bell Savage Yard, Ludgate Hill, 1817U
Arnoux, John, bookbinder, 21, Garden Row, Prospect Place, Southwark, 1817U
Arrowsmith, A., geographer & mapseller, 10, Soho Square, 1817U
Ash, John, engraver & copperplate printer, 96, Borough, 1817U
Ashbrook, George, bookseller &c, 34, Bow Lane, Cheapside, 1817U
Ashby, Robert, engraver, printer & manufacturer of banker’s note paper, 86, Lombard Street, 1817U
Ashley, Y., bookseller, 45, York Street, Portman Square, 1817U
Ashton, J., stationer, 36, Bishopsgate within, 1817U
Ashton, Joseph, stationer & music seller, 30, Bishopsgate within, 1817U
Asperne, James, bookseller, 32, Cornhill, 1817U
Aspin, Jehoshapat, printer, 48, Percival Street, Northampton Square, 1817U
Audinet, Philip, historical engraver, 56, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, 1817U
Auger & Jones, sealing wax & wafer manufacturers & stationers, 20, Magdalen Street, Tooley Street, 1817U
Auller, Joseph, stationer, 41, Brewer Street, Golden Square, 1817U
Austin & Mann, stationers, 10, George Yard, Lombard Street, 1817U
Austin, John, paper hanging manufacturer, 10, George Yard, Lombard Street, 1817U
Austin, Richard, copperplate and seal engraver, 30, Fore Street, Cripplegate, 1817U
Austin, R., engraver, 57, Great Sutton Street, Clerkenwell, 1817U
Axtell & Purser, booksellers, 1, Finch Lane, Cornhill, 1817U
Ayres, Philip, pocket book maker, 18, Size Lane, 1817U
Backhouse, John, copperplate prinrer, 14, George’s Court, Clerkenwell, 1817U
Badcock, John, bookseller, 4, Queen’s Head Passage, Newgate Street, 1817U
Baddeley, J., rag merchant &c, 105, Golden Lane, 1817U
Badnam, A., umbrella maker & stationer, Church Street, Deptford, 1817U
Bage, Joseph, bookseller, Highgate, 1817U
Bagg, Thomas, engraver & chaser, 33, Frith Street, Soho, 1817U
Baggs, Henry, stationer & bookseller, 93, Fore Street, Limehouse, 1817U
Bagshaw & Sons, news vendors, 31 , Bridges Street, Covent Garden, 1817U
Bagster, Samuel, bookseller, 81, Strand, 1817U
Bailey, John, bookseller, 116, Chancery Lane, 1817U
Bailey Paine & Co., stationers, 89, Royal Exchange, 1817U
Baily, J., landscape engraver, 8, Nelson Street, Hackney Road, 1817U
Baily, John, aquatinta engraver, 8, Nelson Street, Hackney Road, 1817U
Bain, bookseller & stationer, King’s Mews Gate, 1817U
Bain, William, newsvenders, Palmers Villa, Westminster, 1817U
Baker, Mary, stationer & haberdasher, 40, Marylebone High Street, 1817U
Baker, Richard junior, printer, 9, Bunhill Row, 1817U
Baker, William, newspaper office, 126, Goswell Street, 1817U
Baldwin, Charles, printer, Bridge Street, Blackfriars, 1817U
Baldwin & Co., booksellers, 122, Newgate Street, 1817U
Baldwin Cradock & Joy, booksellers, 47, Paternoster Row, 1817U
Baldwin, E., printseller, 6, Lyon’s Inn, 1817U
Baldwyn, Edward, printseller, 2, Catherine Street, Strand, 1817U
Ball, James & Co., music sellers, 408, Oxford Street, 1817U
Ball, Joseph, account book manufacturer, 13, Windmill Street, City Road, 1817U
Ballard, James, bookseller & stationer, 6, North Audley Street, 1817U
Ballard, T., bookbinder, 10, Westmoreland Buildings, Aldergate Street, 1817U
Ballard, William, rag warehouse, Folly, Dockhead, 1817U
Ballard, bookseller, 23, Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, 1817U
Balls, James, music seller, 408, Oxford Street, 1817U
Banfield, Thomas, bookbinder, 3, Albion Buildings, 1817U
Bangley & Nott, wholesale stationers, 26, Bridge Row, 1817U
Banister, C.W., stationer, 109, Goswell Street, 1817U
Barber, John, die engraver, 4, Richmond Buildings, Soho, 1817U
Bardin & Sons, globe makers, 16, Salisbury Square, Fleet Street , 1817U
Barfield, John, printer & bookseller, 91 , Wardour Street, Soho, 1817U
Barker & Co., wholesale pen quill sealing wax & wafer manufacturers, 1, Cannon Street, 1817U
Barker, J., bookseller, 19, Great Russell Street, Covent Garden, 1817U
Barker, printer & bookseller, Great Russell Street, Covent Garden, 1817U
Barling, Mary, stationer, 99, Wood Street, Cheapside, 1817U
Barling, W.H., bookseller &c & navigation warehouse, Ord Street, Millwall, 1817U
Barlow, Alexander, bookseller &c, 26, Frith Street, Soho, 1817U
Barlow, J., stationer & paper hanger, 60, Cannon Street, 1817U
Barlow, J., engraver, 2, Saint George’s Place, Blackfriars Road, 1817U
Barnard & Farley, printers, 57, Snow Hill, 1817U
Barnes, Thomas, bookseller & bookbinder, 9, Piccadilly, 1817U
Barnes, W., printer, 3, Kent Street, Borough, 1817U
Barnett, Lewis, pencil maker, 6, Fountain Court, Minories, 1817U
Barnett, W., seal engraver, 48, Pall Mall, 1817U
Barnfield, James, stationer, 82, Broad Street, Ratcliffe Cross, 1817U
Baron & Randall, newsmen, 15, Great New Street, Gough Square, 1817U
Barratt, E., bookseller, 21, Portugal Street, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, 1817U
Barrett, Matthew, stationer & rag merchant, 26, Greenhill’s Rents, West Smithfield, 1817U
Barrett, Michael, bookseller & stationer, 1, White Hart Row, Battle Bridge, 1817U
Barrington, Charles James, bookseller, 344, Strand, 1817U
Barry, James, stationer & navigation warehouse, 106, Minories, 1817U
Barry, S., stationer, 2, Bridge Street, Westminster, 1817U
Barry, William, stationer & bookbinder, Portsmouth Street, Westminster, 1817U
Bartlett, John, stationer, 2, Swan Street, Minories, 1817U
Barton, John, stationer &c, High Street, Hampstead, 1817U
Bass, J., copperplate printer, 21, Saint Martin’s le Grand, 1817U
Bass, John, copperplate printer, 20, Angel Street, Saint Martin’s le Grand, 1817U
Batchelor, Thomas, printer & publisher, 115, Long Alley, Moorfields, 1817U
Bate, James, paper hanging manufacturer, 45, Cheapside, 1817U
Bateman, John, engraver, 128, Long Acre, 1817U
Batley, W., work box & pocket book maker, 1, Brownlow Street, Holborn, 1817U
Battle, J.W., engraver, 10, Wine Office Court, Gough Square, Fleet Street, 1817U
Bawn, George, musician & bookseller, Saint Martin’s Churchyard, Strand, 1817U
Bawtree, William, engraver, 4, Lilliput Lane, Noble Street, Falcon Square, 1817U
Baxter, S., bookseller, 82, Strand, 1817U
Baxter, William, newsman, 1, Maidenhead Court, Aldersgate, 1817U
Baylie, John, law stationer, 37, Bell Yard, Temple Bar, 1817U
Baylis, H., bookseller, 19, Queen Street, Knightsbridge, 1817U
Bayly, S.M. & Co., stationers & rag merchants, 88, Whitecross Street, 1817U
Baynes, Richard, bookseller, 54, Paternoster Row, 1817U
Baynes, Richard, bookseller, 8, Charles Street, City Road, 1817U
Baynes, William, bookseller, 54, Paternoster Row, 1817U
Beales, Edward, bookseller & stationer, 39, Tottenham Court Road, 1817U
Beard, A, seal engraver, Mouldmakers’ Row, Saint Martin le Grand, 1817U
Beard, F., bookbinder’s tool cutter, 24 , Hyde Street, Bloomsbury, 1817U
Beard, engraver, 24, Hyde Street, Bloomsbury, 1817U
Beattie, Anne, pocket book maker, 68, Leadenhall Street, 1817U
Beaumont, Edward, bookseller, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, 1817U
Beckett & Porter, booksellers, 81, Pall Mall, 1817U
Beckley, Edward, bookbinder, 43, Lime Street, 1817U
Beckwith, J., engraver, 25, Wilderness Row, Goswell Street, 1817U
Beeson, William, ststioner & bookseller, near, White Hart, Mile End Road, 1817U
Bell, John, bookseller, Sweetings Alley, Cornhill, 1817U
Bell Joseph, bookseller, 148, Oxford Street, 1817U
Bell, R., printer’s ink maker, Brunswick Street, Blackfriars Road, 1817U
Bell & Wright, copperplate printers, 20, Duke Street, Bloomsbury, 1817U
Bellamy & Mansell, newspaper office, 5, Bear Yard, Lincoln’s Inn, 1817U
Benedict, Francis, bookseller, 4, May’s Buildings, Saint Martin’s Lane, 1817U
Bennett, Benjamin, printer & stationer, 7, Cross Street, Carnaby Market, 1817U
Bennett, S.G., stationer & rag merchant, 13, Newington Causeway, 1817U
Beningfield, W., bookseller & stationer, 33, Cursitor Streeet, Chancery Lane, 1817U
Bensley, T. & Son, printers, Bolt Court, Fleet Street, 1817U
Bent, William, bookseller, 55, Paternoster Row, 1817U
Bentley, Edward, bookseller & publisher, 28, Paternoster Row, 1817U
Berry, Cornelius, stationer, 18, Sweetings Alley, 1817U
Best, bookbinder, 2, Warwick Lane, Newgate Street, 1817U
Bethell, James, stationer, Castle Alley, Cornhill, 1817U
Beugo, A., printseller, 38, Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, 1817U
Bickerstaff, Robert, bookseller, 49, Essex Street, Strand, 1817U
Biddulph, T.H., paper hanger & stationer, 9, Blackman Street, Borough, 1817U
Bigg, James, bookseller, 52, Parliament Street, 1817U
Biggs & Turner, stationers & rag merchants, 17, Garlick Hill, 1817U
Billing, Edward, printer & engraver on wood, 187, Bermondsey Street, Southwark, 1817U
Birchall, Robert, music seller, 133, New Bond Street, , 1817U
Bird, C. & H., stationers, 5, Ave Maria Lane, , 1817U
Bird, John, bookbinder, 52, Hatton Garden, , 1817U
Bird, Matthew, printer, 25, Homer Street, , 1817U
Birkett & Scott, booksellers, 27, Norton Falgate, , 1817U
Birnie, Colin, bookseller, 14, Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, 1817U
Bishop, John, copperplate printer & engraver, 20, Albion Buildings, , 1817U
Bishop, W., copperplate printer & engraver, 11, Rolls Buildings, Fetter Lane, 1817U
Black, James & Son, bookseller & stationers, 9, York Street, Covent Garden, 1817U
Black, James & Son, bookseller & stationers, 2, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, 1817U
Black Parbury & Co., booksellers & stationers, 7, Leadenhall Street, , 1817U
Blackbird, Charles, portrait painter & engraver, 23, Little Bell Ally, Coleman Street, 1817U
Blackburn, John, newsman & stationer, 32, Knightsbridge, , 1817U
Blacklock, J., bookseller, 92 under, Royal Exchange, , 1817U
Blackwell & Colvin, printer’s ink makers, , King Street, Goswell Street, 1817U
Blackwell, Francis, paper hanging warehouse, 50, Upper Marylebone Street, , 1817U
Blake, Thomas, wholesale stationer, , Poppin’s Court, Fleet Street, 1817U
Blake, W.S., engraver & printer, 16, Change Alley, , 1817U
Blanchard, Thomas, bookseller, 14, City Road, , 1817U
Bland & Weller, wholesale musical instrument manufacturers & music warehouse, 23, Oxford Street, , 1817U
Blandford, S., engraver & printer, 17, King’s Head Court , Shoe Lane, 1817U
Bleaden, John, stationer, 47, Lothbury, , 1817U
Blood, Thomas, engraver, , , Plaistow, Essex, 1817U
Bloyd & Penley, booksellers, rag merchants &c, 44, Strand, , 1817U
Boag, William, music seller, 11, Great Turnstile, Holborn, 1817U
Boggis, D., pen & quill warehouse, 31, Crooked Lane, , 1817U
Bohn, John, English & German bookseller, 31, Frith Street, Soho, 1817U
Bohte, J.H., bookseller, 3, York Street, Covent Garden, 1817U
Bolton, John, paper hanger, 6, City Road, Old Street, 1817U
Bond, Benjamin, rag merchant, 101, Blackman Street, , 1817U
Bond, William, engraver, 87, Newman Street, Oxford Street, 1817U
Bonsor, Joseph, wholesale stationer, , Salisbury Square, Fleet Street, 1817U
Booker, Joseph, bookseller, 61, New Bond Street, , 1817U
Boone, T., bookseller, 8, Russell Court, Drury Lane, 1817U
Boosey, Thomas, bookseller, 4, Old Broad Street, , 1817U
Booth, John, bookseller & stationer, , Duke Street, Portland Place, 1817U
Booth,T., printer, 31, Saint Andrew’s Hill, , 1817U
Bore, Thomas, printer, 1, Raven Row, Mile End Turnpike, 1817U
Bossange & Mason, booksellers, 14, Great Marlborough Street, , 1817U
Bott, John, engraver & printer, 1, Wells Street, Cripplegate, 1817U
Boulton, John, paper hanger, 6, City Road, , 1817U
Bounden, J., bookbinder, 19, Mortimer Street, , 1817U
Boustead, William, bookseller & stationer, 9, Charles Street, Westminster, 1817U
Boutcher, John, book class [clasp?] manufacturer, , Queen Square, Aldersgate Street, 1817U
Bowden & Kerby, booksellers & stationers, 190, Oxford Street, , 1817U
Bowen, George, paper hanging manufacturer, adjoining, King’s Road, Chelsea, 1817U
Bowen & Morant, paper hanging manufacturers, 88, New Bond Street, , 1817U
Bowker, Robert, engraver & printer, 3, White Lion Court, Birchin Lane, 1817U
Bowles & Carver, printers, 69, Saint Paul’s Churchyard, , 1817U
Bowles & Gardiner, wholesale stationers, 49, Newgate Street, , 1817U
Bowstead, William, bookseller & news dealer, 12, Charles Street, Westminster, 1817U
Bowyer, R., publisher, 8, Pall Mall, , 1817U
Boydell & Co., printsellers & merchants, 90, Cheapside, , 1817U
Boyle, Messrs, law stationers, 50, Carey Street, Lincoln’s Inn, 1817U
Boyle, Robert & Co., wholesale stationers, 198, Upper Thames Street, , 1817U
Boyle, William, paper hanging manufacturer, 121, Newgate Street, , 1817U
Boyse, John, printer, 44, Great Sutton Street, , 1817U
Brady, Thomas, paper hanger, 24, Clements Lane, , 1817U
Brady, Thomas, paper hanger, , , Kingsland, 1817U
Bragg, Arthur, seal engraver, 9, Queen Street, Golden Square, 1817U
Braham, William, engraver, 5, Westmorland Street, , 1817U
Brand, William, rag merchant, 7, Little St Andrew Street, Seven Dials, 1817U
Branston, Robert, engraver on wood, 10, East India Chambers, Leadenhall Street, 1817U
Breun, Peter, picture dealer & printseller, 4, Crown Street, , 1817U
Brewer, W., paper mould & felt maker, 70, Westmorland Place, City Road, 1817U
Bridges, S., letterpress & copperplate printer, 104, Saint John Street, West Smithfield, 1817U
Bridges, Mrs (widow), stationer, 104, Saint John Street, West Smithfield, 1817U
Brimmer, George, printer, 15, Water Lane, Fleet Street, 1817U
Briscoe, Joseph, printer, 15, Angel Street, Saint Martin’s le Grand, 1817U
Bristow, Nimrod, stationer &c, 234, High Street, Poplar, 1817U
British Press & Globe, newspaper office, 127, Strand, , 1817U
Britten, G., paper hanging manufactory, 231, Bermondsey Street, , 1817U
Britten, J., engraver &c, , , Stoke Newington, 1817U
Britten, William, bookseller, , Broad Court, Bow Street, Covent Garden, 1817U
Brocklesbury, Thomas, stationer & rag merchant, 45, Queen Street, Cheapside, 1817U
Brook & Co., engravers to Royal Family, 302, Strand, , 1817U
Brooke, Samuel, printer, 35, Paternoster Row, , 1817U
Brookman & Langdon, black lead pencil makers, 28, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, 1817U
Brooks & Co., paper hangers, 28, Old Bond Street, , 1817U
Brooks, Francis, news agent, 1, Birchin Lane, Cornhill, 1817U
Brooks & Harper, law stationers, 24, Bell Yard, Temple Bar, 1817U
Brooks, John, rag merchant, 32, Marylebone Lane, , 1817U
Brooks, John, stationer & bookbinder, 421, Oxford Street, , 1817U
Brooks, R., news vender, 20, Cross Street, Newington Butts, 1817U
Brotherton, John, playing card maker, 15, Little Britain, , 1817U
Brown, A., newsman, 29, Grafton Street, Soho, 1817U
Brown, A.S., stationer, 39, Poultry, , 1817U
Brown, B., engraver & printer, 10, Bell Yard, Temple Bar, 1817U
Brown, C., bookseller, , Duke Street, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, 1817U
Brown, Edward, bookseller, 72, Fore Street, , 1817U
Brown, Edward, law stationer, 38, Carey Street, Lincoln’s Inn, 1817U
Brown, John, bookseller & printseller, 14, Dean Street, Westminster, 1817U
Brown, Richard, printer, 14, moor Street, Soho, 1817U
Brown, S., stationer & paper hanger, 7, Blackmoor Street, Clare Markey, 1817U
Brown & Scripps, newsagents, 7, Southmolton Street, , 1817U
Brown, William, bookseller, publisher & agent, near, Gibraltar Chapel, Bethnal Green, 1817U
Brown, William, bookseller, , Butt Lane, Deptford, 1817U
Browne, J.D., engraver, 29, New Street, Covent Garden, 1817U
Browne, Thomas, pen & quill warehouse, 20, Crooked lane, , 1817U
Bruce, J., bookseller &c, 5, City Road, , 1817U
Bruce, Joseph, stationer, 9, Sweetings Alley, Royal Exchange, 1817U
Bryan, John & Son, printers, 11, Grocers’ Hall Court, Poultry, 1817U
Bryer, Henry, printer, , Bridewell Hospital, , 1817U
Buckinger, J., music seller & musical instrument maker, 443, Strand, , 1817U
Budd & Caulkin, booksellers, 100, Pall Mall, , 1817U
Bull, William, paper stainer, , Tabernacle Square, , 1817U
Bullock, John, engraver, 43, Little Britain, , 1817U
Bullock, John, rag & phial merchant, 11, Westmoreland Street, , 1817U
Bullock, John, rag & phial merchant, 27, Ridinghouse Lane, , 1817U
Bulmer, William, Shakespeare Printing Office, , Russell Court, Saint James’s, 1817U
Bumpus, John, bookseller & stationer, 6, Lower Holborn, , 1817U
Bumpus, James, bookseller & stationer, , , Camberwell Green, 1817U
Bumpus, Thomas, bookseller, 5, Goswell Street, , 1817U
Bunce, John, bookbinder, 13, Denmark Court, Strand, 1817U
Burch, Joseph, stationer &c, 5, White Hart Court, Lombard Street, 1817U
Burchett, S., engraver & printer, 11, Bull Alley, Lombard Street, 1817U
Burford, Thomas, stationer & paper hanger, 68, Ratcliffe Highway, , 1817U
Burgess, Charles, rag merchant, 44, Red Lion Street, Spitalfields, 1817U
Burkett, John, law stationer, 25, Castle Street, Holborn, 1817U
Burkitt & Hudson, stationers & paper hangers, 85, Cheapside, , 1817U
Burn, Thomas, bookbinder, 37, Kirby Street, Hatton Garden, 1817U
Burrup, John, stationer, 6 back of, Royal Exchange, , 1817U
Burslem, James, stationer, 3, Great Surrey Street, Blackfriars Road, 1817U
Burtenshaw, Henry, stationer & newsman, 132, Saint Martin’s Lane, , 1817U
Burton & Briggs, stationers, 156, Leadenhall Street, , 1817U
Burton, Mrs, printer, 82, Fetter lane, Holborn, 1817U
Burton, Richard, stationer, , Symonds Inn, Chancery Lane, 1817U
Burtt, Thomas, pocket book lock & clasp manufacturer, 45, Northampton Street, Clerkenwell, 1817U
Bush, John, law stationer, 27, Bell Yard, Temple Bar, 1817U
Buss, G., bookbinder, 2, Dorrington Street, Clerkenwell, 1817U
Buss, W.C., engraver & enameller, 60, Jewin Street, Cripplegate, 1817U
Bussell James, music seller, 214, Tottenham Court Road, , 1817U
Butler, miss, general post office & stationer, , , Hounslow, 1817U
Butler, Robert, engraver & printer, 35, Crooked Lane, , 1817U
Butler, Robert, stationer & brush maker, 9, Bruton Street, , 1817U
Butterworth, Joseph & Son, law booksellers, 43, Fleet Street, , 1817U
Button Whitaker & Co., music repository, 75, Saint Paul’s Churchyard, , 1817U
Button, W. & Son, booksellers & publishers, 24, Paternoster Row, , 1817U
Buxton, Thomas, bookseller & stationer, , Blackman Street, Borough, 1817U
Buzzard, J., carver, gilder & paper hanger, 109, High Holborn, , 1817U
Byfield & Son, booksellers & stationers, 21, Charing Cross, , 1817U
Byrne, John, engraver, 54, Upper John Street, Tottenham Court Road, 1817U
Cadell & Davies, booksellers, 141, Strand, , 1817U
Calar, John & James, newsmen, 8, Chain Gate, Borough High Street, 1817U
Calf, William, bookseller & stationer, 109, Edgware Road, , 1817U
Callow, John, medical bookseller, 10, Crown Court, Soho, 1817U
Camp, D., bookbinder, 33, Duke Street, Smithfield, 1817U
Camp, J., bookbinder, 4, West Smithfield, , 1817U
Campbell, A. & Co., stationers, 9, Upper Castle Street, Leicester Square, 1817U
Camps, William, ink & blacking manufacturer, 129, Curtain Road, Shoreditch, 1817U
Canton, J.J. , quill manufacturer, 9, Gun Square, Shoreditch, 1817U
Cantwell, Ralph, printer, 29, Bell Yard, Temple Bar, 1817U
14 December 2005
Monumenta chartae papyraceae cloacales historiam illustrantia
This page introduces a blinkered world to the young academic discipline of cloacopapyrology. There are three main sections:
- Directory of manufacturers and suppliers
- History of the product
- A plea for the discipline of cloacopapyrology
Cloacopapyrologist and local studies librarian
1 April 2003.
This first attempt at a directory concentrates very much on firms with a base in London. The main sources are Kelly's London directories 1885-1944, 1950, 1958, 1962, 1972, 1976, 1981, and Kelly's directory of merchants, manufacturers and shippers 1986.
Abbott's Wood Ltd., 324, Gray's Inn Road WCI, tel: TERminus 8121 (10 lines) 1950. Merchants.
Alico Paper Converters, Unit 1, Old Western Boulevard, Leicester LE1 7BU 1986
Atkins, G.W. & Co., home trade 2, Mount Street W1 1919-25. Shipping agents J.F.Storey & Co., 164, Aldersgate Street EC1 1919-25. Royal warrants to all crowned heads from 1817. "Berkeley" toilet papers rolls & packets.
Bedford Toilet Roll and Paper Cutting Co., Thurlow Street and Hasselt Street Works, Bedford, Telegraphic Address: Toilet, Bedford. Tel: Bedford 282. Toilet papers in rolls and packets, also medicated papers, paper coils and wrappings, slitting done for the trade, government and railway contractors 1917-20.
Blue Distributors Ltd., 37, Furnival Street EC4, 1940.
Bowater-Scott Corporation Ltd (K. Dept.), Bowater House, Stratton Street W1 tel MAYfair 8080 telegrams Nuseprint 1958; Bowater House, Knightsbridge SW1 1962; Bowater-Scott House, East Grinstead, West Sussex RH19 1UR Tel: 0342-27191 telex 95217 BOSLDN G 1986. Andrex, Samaritan, Marvo and Bravo brands 1958.
British Crepe Paper Manufacturers Ltd, 23a & 24, Exmouth Street, Euston Square NW1 1917-24; 42-48, Coburg Street NW1 1921-24.
British Patent Perforated Paper Co., 42, Banner Street, St. Luke's EC 1891-93; 42 & 43, Banner Street 1894-95; 92, Banner Street 1896-97; White's Yard, Whitecross Street EC 1898; Garrett Street, Whitecross Street EC 1899; 32A-37, Cowper Street, City Road EC 1900-09; Atlas Works, Berkshire Road, Hackney Wick E9 1910-58+ Tel: East 1876 (2 lines) 1912-30; Amherst 1128 (2 lines) 1931-36; Amherst 4777 1937-58+. Telegraphic address: Medipathic Hack 1936-58+. Sole manufacturers of Bronco (formerly called No. 1 Thin) 1894-1958+ [from 1935 described as the de luxe toilet paper in displayed layout], Sanico 1894-1944+, Queen 1894-1936, British No. 3 1894-1958+, Eureka 1894-1936, Bel-Cap 1894-1936, Mazella 1895-1936, Unico 1896-1944+, Medipathic 1896-1936, Cameo 1897-1958, Gloria Victis 1901-36, San Toi 1902-36, Fidelos 1904-36; Shen-Kin 1904-36, Okayed 1904-36, Vade-Mecum 1904-36, Bronco Capensis 1937-44+, Carmol (medicated) 1937-44+ Capensis 1950-58, Merico 1958, Lavato 1958, Onliwon 1931-58+.
British Tissues, 214, Oxford Street W1N 0BQ 1972.
Bronco Ltd., Atlas Works, Berkshire Road E9 1962.
Centropex International Trading Co. Ltd. (merchants), Sicilian House, Sicilian Avenue WC1 1941-43.
Chicago Perforated Wrapping paper Co., 44, La Salle Street, Chicago 1882. Advertised Hotel and Family fixtures and perforated toilet paper, introduced less than two years previously. Advertisement Rickards Collection.
Colindale Paper Co Ltd. 116, Colindale Ave NW9 1950-58. Telegraphic address: Papcolco, Hyde, London 1950-58. Tel: Colindale 7551 & 7140 1950-58. Manufacturers of Luxury, Colinco, Papcol rolls 1950. Also manufactured packs.
Colley, W.W. & Co., 57B. Hatton Garden EC 1889-91. Continued trading as: Colley's Patents Ltd, 147-150 Great Saffron Hill EC 1892-1902; 18 & 20, Farringdon Road 1903-06; 3-12, Marine Street, Bermondsey 1907-23. Sole patentees of the Terebene perforated tiolet paper 1890-1905; also No. 1 thin, No. 2 standard and No. 3 medium qualities 1890-94. Prize medal, highest award Paris Exhibition, 1889; all the lavatories at the Paris Exhibition were supplied with our patent Terebene perforated paper. Also other qualities 1894. Ship Brand No. 1 thin, No. 2 standard, No. 3 medium and other qualities 1895-1905. Sole patentees and manufacturers of Terebene Medicated, Yelloc Medicated and Ship Brand perforated papers in qualities No. 1 thin, No. 2 standard, No. 3 medium &c. &c. Also of endless cartons from which as one sheet is withdrawn another falls into position 1906-15. Guaranteed British manufacture, pure soft strong soluble, contractors to H.M. and foreign governments 1921-23.
Colley's Patents Ltd. See: Colley, W.W. & Co.
Crepe Paper Manufacturing Co. Ltd. 20, Pancras Road NW1 1929; 491-493, Liverpool Road N7, Telegraphic address Crepapco Nordo, Telephone: North 5981 1930-31; Colindale Avenue, Colindale NW9, Telegraphic address: Crepapco Hyde, telephone: Colindale 6432 & 6433 (private branch ex.) 1932-33.
Cresta Products Ltd. Devonshire Works, Barley Mow Passage, Chiswick 1950; Devonshire Works, Dukes Avenue W4 1958-62. Tel: CHIswick 4707 1950; Chiswick 6991/5 1958; 6991/7 1962. Telegraphic address: Crestapro, Chisk 1958-62. Manufacturers of Pinecrest toilet tissue 1950.
Cross Paperware Ltd, Dunstable, Beds 1962
Cumberland paper Co. Ltd. 22, St. Giles High Street WC2 1950; Derbyshire House, Belgrove Street, Kings Cross WC1, tel: TERminus 9821/4 1958
Diamond Mills Paper Company, 44 Murray Street, New York c1890. Manufacturers of Bromo paper, with watermark "Bromo" on each sheet. Highest prize awarded by the Paris Exposition 1878. Pack in Rickards Collection.
Dickinson, John, & Co. Ltd. Basildon Works, South Tottenham N15 1950. London office 35/38 New Bridge Street EC4 1950. London stock warehouse: Croxley House, Wharfdale Road, Kings Cross N1 1950. 1962.
Downing, John S., 8, Bride Street EC 1894-95. Manufacturer of patented toilet fixtures and refills.
Drayton Paper Works Ltd., London SE c1900; South Park, Fulham SW6 1919-34. Main details under paper makers & warehouses. New and revised list of "Drayton Mill" toilet papers issued by G.W.Dray & Son Ltd., Drayton Paper Works, London SE lists: Iva (No. 1 thin), Medicated S.S.P., Waldorf, No. 852, Silko no. 3, Tokio (Japanese), Antiseptic, Guildford, Giant, Light Sanitory, Extra Strong, D.M. Medicated, Club, 444, Standard, Japanese c1900. A later New and revised list of prize medal Drayton Mill toilet papers, issued from South Park c1910 lists: Iva (no. 1 thin), Iva (medicated), Best Terebene, 6d Terebene, S.S.P. Medicated with Jeyes' fluid, Waldorf, Sno, No. 852, Special no. 3, Crepe, 676, Tokio, Silko no. 3, Club, Guildford, Antiseptic, Dreadnought, Lion, Hotel, Giant, Light Sanitary, Extra Strong, 444, Standard, Tokio Quality. Catalogues in Maxted collection.
Ellis, Phillips & Co., emergency address: Lindsay Avenue, High Wycombe, Bucks 1944. Rye Mill, London Road, High Wycombe, Bucks 1950-58; 11-13, Charterhouse Buildings EC1 1958-62; Lincoln Road, Cressex, High Wycombe 1962. Telephone: High Wycombe 516 1944. Merchants.
Emmert, V., 115, Fore Street EC 1905-06. Agent.
Fay International Ltd., Friendly House, Chiswell Street, London EC1Y 4UD tel: 01-606 9966 telegraphic address Faytiss London EC1 telex 888111 1972.
Federal Paper Co. Ltd., 31-33, High Holborn WC1 1922-25.
Fort Sterling Ltd, Mansell Way, Horwich, Bolton BL6 6JL 1986. Tel: 0204-68611 1986. Telex: 63323 FORTS G 1986.
Franses Trading Corporation Ltd., 74, Fordwych Road NW2 1942-50; 15 Popham Road N1 1958; 110 Regent Park Road N3 1962. Tel CANonbury 4256 1958; FINchley 6211 1962. Telegraphic address: Pentesales Nordo 1958, 1962
Freeder Brothers Paper Mills, Brimsdown, Enfield, Middlesex 1950. Tel: HOWard 1847 (5 lines) 1950. Manufacturers of Satino rolls and packs 1950.
Gee Tee Company, Gertex Works, Cumberland Road, Queensbury, Stanmore, Middlesex, Telegraphic address: Gee Tee Stanmore Middx, telephone: Wordsworth 2253/4/5 1938-50. Also paper handkerchiefs, serviettes, soluble sanitary towels. Display advert.
Goggin, Maurice, Ltd, 36, Peckover Street, Bradford, W. Yorks BD1 5DJ 1986. Suppliers.
Hachette ainé, 14, Rue d'Aboukir, Paris 1910-11. Established 1860. A large French manufacturer of toilet papers of extra quality in rolls, blocks & packets for automatic distributors; seat covers called "L'anticontact", manufacturer of distributing boxes and roll holders.
Hoogland, B.T. 88, John Street, New York c1890. Sole agents for Europe 46 Holborn Viaduct London EC c1900. Manufacturers of Gayetty's medicated toilet paper "a sure preventive of piles, each sheet watermarked with the signature of the inventor J.C.Gayetty. The paper was invented and introduced to the public by Joseph C.Gayetty in 1857. Pack in Rickards collection.
Innes, Thomas A., 3, Roslyn Avenue, Camberwell SE5 1939-40. Merchant.
Japa Paper Products Ltd, Leeside Mills, Churwell, Morley, Leeds LS27 7NP 1986. Tel: 0523-532661 1986
Jeyes Sanitary Compounds Co. Ltd., 99, Regent Street W1 & Richmond Street, Plaistow E3, telegraphic address Jeyes, telephone Regent 5033 1937-40; emergency address Milbrook Manor Road, Chigwell, Essex, telegraphic address Jeyes Chigwell 1940-50. Telephone Chigwell 2763 (2 lines) 1940. Telephone Hainault 2763/4 1943-44, Hainault 8031 1950. Antiseptic toilet paper in packets of single interleaved sheets. 1958, 1962.
Kimberly-Clark Ltd, 11, Grosvenor Gardens SW1 1958; Larkfield nr Maidstone, Kent 1962, tel: Maidstone 7551 1962. Makers of Delsey toilet roll 1958-62
Kittybrewster (Paper) Ltd., Head office: Kittybrewster Works, Aberdeen 1962-81; 88/90, Chancery Lane, London WC2 1962-76; Carlisle House, 8, Southampton Row London WC1B 4AE tel: 01-405 7117 1981.
Lipton's Paper Mills Ltd, Unity Works, Heddon Street W1, telegrams: Sprays, Piccy, London, tel: REGent 4271 (8 lines) 1950; Devonshire Works, Chiswick W4 1950; West Hampstead Mews NW6 1950; 216, Rotherhithe New Road SE16 1958. Tel: MAIda Vale 2436 1950.
London Paper Reelers and Cutters Ltd., 71, Fleet Street 1914-15; 2, Bermondsey Street SE 1915.
Lotz, Abbott & Co. Ltd. Toilet paper machine manufacturers, Avenue Chambers, 4, Vernon Place, Southampton Row WCI, tel: HOLborn 0672/3 1958-62
Luttgen, Matthias, 34, Paternoster Row EC, telephone Central 1473 1908-15. Works: Ottensen bei Hamburg 1908-15.
Lyndale Industrial Supplies Ltd 1986
Lynwood's Ltd, Wardrobe Chambers, Carter Lane EC4 (near St. Paul's), telephone Central 8331; 1921-24; Wardrobe Chambers 146A, Queen Vicoria Street 1925-26. Wholesale retail and export. Samples and quotations post free.
Mallandian, Albert E., 36 & 37, King Street, Cheapside EC2 1928.
Metropolitan Paper Works Inc, St Georges (London), 181 Queen Victoria Street EC4, 48, Eagle Wharf Road N1 & 810/812 Old Ford Road E3 1950.
Myers, Henry Horace, 7, Laurence Pountney Hill EC4, telegraphic address: Ambiguity Cannon London, Telephone: City 6272 1924-25.
National Toilet Co., 19, St. Dunstan's Hill EC 1896.
Neptune Waterproof Paper Co. Ltd., Bridge Works, Cowley, Uxbridge, Middlesex, telegraphic address: Neptune Cowley Middlesex 1927-36. Telephone: Uxbridge 195 1927-35; Uxbridge 1260 1936. Toilet and waterproof paper manufacturers 1927-34. Neptune hygienic toilet rolls 1935-36.
Northern Tissue Co. Ltd., Africa House, Kingsway WC2 1935.
Pakwel Ltd., 47, Farringdon Road EC1, telegraphic address Pakwelkap Smith, telephone Holborn 4784 1924-27. The Pakwelim series.
Paper Cutting and Toilet Requisite Co. Ltd., formerly Patent Toilet Requisite Co. Ltd q.v.
Paper Shavings Co. Ltd., 49, Queen Victoria Street EC4 1937-44; 31, Budge Row EC4 1950, tel: CITy 6306 1950, telegrams Trisol, Stock 1950; Peggy's Mill, Newhaven Road, Edinburgh 1937-58; Baltic Chambers, Wellington Street, Glasgow, telegraphic address Pashco, Glasgow, tel: Central 2760 1950. Telegraphic address Peggy, Edinburgh 6 1950-58, tel: Edinburgh 35806 (2 lines) 1950; Leith 35806 (2 lines) 1958. Tri-Sol medicated toilet paper 1937-50. 1958, 1962
Passmill (Paper Products) Ltd, Lime Street, Newcastle upon Tyne 1 1958.
Patent Toilet Requisite Co. Ltd; from 1890 Paper Cutting and Toilet Requisite Co. Ltd. 4, Coleman Street Buildings, Moorgate Street EC 1885-87; 40-41, Kirby Street EC 1888-93; 90, Goswell Road EC 1894-1906; telegraphic address Toilet 1895-1912; Toilet, Camber, London 1913-50 ; telephone number London Wall 2023 1903-1906; 26, Grove Park, Camberwell SE 1907-44; 26 Grove Park SE5 1950; telephone Brixton 206 1907-26; Brixton 0206 1927-36; Brixton 2963 1937-50. Sole manufacturers of Requisito, the genuine medicated roll, No. 1 thin (from 1905 called Novio), Special, Ivorine, Kirby, Goswell 1895-44. Manufacturers of Colorado 1903-44 of Virilla medicated 1905-44 of Satine 1905-44, of Novio 1950. contractors to H.M.Government 1895-44. Contractors to India Office 1896-44. 1950
Rolex Paper Co Ltd, Friendly House, Chiswell Street EC1 1958-62. Tel: MON 9966 1958-62. Telegraphic address: Spirolpap, Cent & Beatrix, Cent 1958-62
Rostron, John & Sons Ltd., 14, Bayer Street, Golden Lane EC1 1939; 47, Houldsworth Street, Manchester 1 1943-50.
Roxene Products Ltd, 234, Billet Road E 17 1958-62
Rutherford, J. & Co. Ltd., Victoria Mills, Victoria Road, Holloway N7 1921-44, telephone North 3419 1921-50, North 3544 1925-30, telegraphic address Peroofets Holway 1938-50. Victoria paper Mills, Chillingworth Road Holloway N7 1950; Victoria Mills, 29a, Dumont Road N16 1958; Victoria Mills, Chester Road, Shotton, Flint 1962. Regd. trade marks for toilet rolls: Daffodil 1921-37, Crepapco 1925-37, Economic 1930-37, Bulldog 1930-37, Bestofall 1930-37, Samson 1930-37, Victoria 1930-37, Gladio 1930-37, Exmouth 1930-37, Poppy 1930-37, Old Dutch 1930-37, Locarno 1934-37, Desma 1934-37. Manufacturers of crepe papers, serviettes etc 1925-29. Medicated toilet rolls our speciality 1930-37.
St. Andrew Mills Ltd., 34, St. Andrew Road, Walthamstow E17, telephone: LARkswood 1014/5/6 1942-50. Telegrams: Samarita, Waltstreet, London. Manufacturers of Samaritan, Marvo, Andrex, Stanex and Androl rolls 1950.
Salas & Co., 1-6, Railway Place, 65A, Fenchurch Street EC3 1939-40.
Salus Co. Ltd. Lion Works, 3/5, Ferry Lane, London N17 1950-72.
Salvas, 1-6, Railway Place, 65A, Fenchurch Street EC3 1931-38.
Sanitary Advertising Co., 65 & 67, Neal Street WC2 1934-44, 37 & 38 Strand WC2 1950.
Santor Paper Ltd., 45, St. Pancras Way NW1 1941-50; 32 Pratt Street NW1 1958-62. Tel EUSton 5695 1950; EUSton 3293 (2 lines) 1958-62. Telegrams: Santpaper, NW1 1958-62. Manufacturers of Pacsan toilet paper 1941-50. 1958, 1962
Scott Paper Co., Audrey House, Ely Place EC 1909.
Sculthorpe, R. & Co. Ltd. Roll holder manufacturers. Blackfriars House, New Bridge Street EC4 1958-62. Tel: FLE 1812/3 1958; FLEet Street 5754/8 1962. Manufacturers of Toilok holder.
Secrol Ltd, 74, Cheapside EC2 1958-62.
Sistex Supplies, Unit F, Bergen Way, Sutton Fields Industrial Estate, Hull HU8 0ZX 1986
Stern, Henry Charles, 6, Lovell's Court, Paternoster Row EC4 1923-24; 12, Farringdon Avenue 1925-40. Geisha crepe toilet rolls.
Storey, J.F. & Co. Shipping agents 1919-25. See G.W.Atkins & Co.
Superior Papers Ltd., Bridge Works, Cowley, Uxbridge, Middlesex, telegrams and telephone Uxbridge 1260/1 1937-50. Manufacturers of Seashore, Mermaid, Deepsea and Star toilet rolls 1950.
Swan Mill Paper Co. Ltd., Old Dockyard SE18 1934-42; 92, Regent Street, telephone REGent 0422/3 1943-50; 314/322 Regent Street W1 1958-62. . Softex toilet tissue 1943-50. Saniswan toilet rolls 1943-44.
Toilet Papers Ltd., Wardrobe Chambers, Queen Victoria Street EC 1933.
Toilet Roll and Paper Cutting Co., Thurlow Street Works, Bedford 1912-15; Hassett Street Works, Bedford 1914-15; telephone Bedford 282 1915. Toilet papers in rolls and packets, also medicated papers; paper coils and wrappings; slitting done for the trade 1912-15. Government and railway contractors 1914-15.
Toilet Tissues Ltd, Barley Mow Passage W4, tel: CHIswick 7923 1958-62.
Velvet Crepe Paper Co. Ltd., Bendon Valley, Garratt Lane SW18 1939; Alperton Mills, Mount Pleasant, Alperton, Middlesex 1943-50. Telegraphic address: Papervel Wembley 1943-62. Tel: WEMbley 2258/9 1943-50; WEMbley 8981/5 1958-62; Woodside End, Alperton, Middlesex 1958-62. Manufacturers of interleaved toilet paper, toilet rolls, face tissues, paper handkerchiefs; trade mark Velvex 1943-50. 1958, 1962.
Wesley, Harold Ltd. Mills & Head office: Harley Mills, Acton Lane NW 10. Tel: ELGar 6801 (5 lines). 34-40 Ludgate Hill EC4, tel: CITy 1833. Factory at Burton-on-Trent 1950. Manufacturers of the Harley sanitary roll.
Willad Paper Mills Ltd., 49, Old Bond Street W1 1944.
The announcement in the national press on 19 October 1989 that Bronco was to discontinue the manufacture of hard toilet paper marked an important stage in the thousand year history of this commodity, a history which cloacopapyrologists are only now beginning to document adequately. In the account which follows I shall use the non-U term "toilet paper" in preference to the U term "lavatory paper" since this is the way it was first designated in trade literature during the Victorian period.
It is the Arab writer Abu Zaid Hasan al Siraff (fl. 916) who first described the use of toilet paper in a collection of travels translated into French in 1845 as Relation des voyages faits par les Arabes et Persanes dans l'Inde et à la Chine dans le ix siècle de l'ère chrétienne by M.Reinaud. He reports of the Chinese: "They do not take care for cleanliness and they do not wash themselves with water after paying a call of nature, but they only wipe themselves with paper."
The obscure and probably revolting habits of medieval times will not be touched on here. Apart from tending to the purely scatological, their contemplation is certainly not germane to the study of printed ephemera.
Unsuccessful experiments with early rag paper during the Renaissance are reported by François Rabelais in chapter 19 of Gargantua, first published in 1534:
Tousjours laisse aux couillons esmorche
Qui son hord cul de papier torche.
In the sixteenth century the most priceless of documents served the function of toilet paper during the dispersal of the monastic libraries following the dissolution of the monasteries. John Bale (1495-1563), Bishop of Ossory, wrote the following in 1549 in his preface to John Leland's The laboryouse journey:
A great nombre of them whych purchased those superstycyous mansyons, reserued of those lybrarye bokes, some to serue theyr iakes, some to scoure theyr candelstyckes, and some to rubbe their bootes.Newspapers for more than a century supplied the readiest source of toilet paper. In the Northampton mercury no. 115 of 9 July 1722 a bitter attack appeared on James Pasham, who was attempting to start a rival newspaper, the Northampton journal. The first issue of the newspaper was described as "his first parcel of bum-fodder" and the luckless Pasham as a "noisy animal" and "old dotard". The newspaper appears not to have survivied this blistering attack. The use of printed papers as toilet paper is recommended by Lord Chesterfield in his Letters to his son, published in 1747. He counsels his son to avoid waste of time and points to the example of one well organised gentleman: "He bought, for example, a common edition of Horace, of which he tore off gradually a couple of pages, carried them with him to that necessary place, read them first, and then sent them down as a sacrifice to Cloacina; thus was so much time fairly gained ..."
It was in America that specially produced sheets of toilet tissue were first manufactured. An early example is Gayety's Medicated paper, produced in packs of 500 at New Jersey in 1857.
The hard-fought British supremacy was soon to be challenged; Matthias Luttgen was established in Paternoster Row itself by 1908. This firm had its head office in Hamburg and only two years earlier Hachette ainé, established in Paris in 1860, is advertising in the London directory. Japanese papers also made their presence felt by the Edwardian era; the Army and Navy Stores catalogue advertised the Mikado elastic crepe paper at 44 shillings per gross of packets in 1907. Crepe paper, or soft tissue as it is known to the trade, did not challenge the British loyalty to hard tissue for several decades, despite the presence of the Rosenfelders, refugees from Hitler's Germany, who set up a mill producing crêpe paper in Walthamstow in 1932.
There is a bewildering variety of trade names from the early years of this century, some of them still household names. Some imply strength and reliability (Bulldog, Samson, Virilla), others gentleness (Satine, Ivorine), others hygiene (Medipathic, San Toi) and others patriotism (Victoria, Queen, Gloria Victis and British no. 1 thin. This last was the name of Bronco prior to 1894. It had first been manufactured by the British Patent Perforated Paper Co (now British Tissues) in 1890.
By the first World War most methods of dispensing had been developed. The pack appears to have been the first, the sheets sometimes being held together by staples or string, but they were soon followed by the roll, not always rouletted as today but frequently perforated. An advertisement of 1906 for the Automatic Toilet Paper Rack states: These papers are put in neat distributors for hanging on the wall; only one sheet of paper can be drawn at a time, and litter and waste are avoided". This principle is reflected in the brand name Onliwon, a system of folding first recorded in 1930 and still in use in public lavatories in the 1980s.
The cloacopapyrologist is most interested in the inscribed varieties, which range from the frequently shoddily produced examples of provincial typography on "Council Property" to the proudly displayed 16 point Thorne bold condensed of "Edinburgh Cleansing Department".
The occurrence of alternating variants throughout many rolls or packs indicates to the analytical cloacopapyrologist the frequent use of reciprocating presses. In Germany, where inscriptions are in comic rather than in cine mode, this has not normally led to rotary printing, perhaps because of the problem of the drag of the crepe paper. In one instance it was clear that printing was effected by the repeated impression of a row of four settings of "Deutsche Bundesbahn".
Rotary printing would be more suitable however for more extensive inscriptions, and toilet paper has readily lent itself as a medium for humour, often of a coprolitic nature. In Japan a set of caricatures of dollar bills has been produced for the American market inscribed "United Seats of America" and signed "Lou Stool". Both England and Germany have rolls with cartoons bearing such captions as "Psychiatrist has a silent P". The German Leserolle has a different anecdote on each sheet in the roll and in 1980 Onsworld Ltd of Stamford, Lincs produced a roll with crossword puzzles.
A more appropriate use of toilet paper was to offer advice on hygiene.
Don't leave dirty handkerchiefs about to spread infectionBoth World Wars saw toilet paper pressed into service for propaganda. In the first World War the manufacturers of Beechams Pills sent sheets of toilet paper to the front reassuringly "printed with clarified ink on non-irritant paper", containing cartoons and jokes including the advertisement "Take Beecham's Pills for active service". The Germans too issued sheets with a series of "Lying reports by our enemies" beautifully printed in Fraktur type. One, allegedly extracted from the Daily telegraph reads "An absolutely authentic source reports: The Germans are completely enclosed in Belgium."
Soak them all in water with some Izal for protection
A roll of World War 2 vintage includes a full length portrait of Hitler with the caption "Now I'm brownshirt all over".
Hitler now screams with impatienceThe gradual demise of hard paper makes the printed sheet of much rarer occurrence. Admittedly patterned and coloured rolls can now be purchased to match the decor of the bathroom. However these products, attractive as they are, cannot compensate the cloacopapyrologist for the loss of the inscribed sheets, many of which must have disappeared without record. After all, most ephemera is printed with the intention of being read at least once before disposal, something which is not normally the case with toilet paper which must therefore be accounted the most ephemeral of ephemera.
Our good health is proving a strain
May he and his Axis relations
Soon find themselves right down the drain
Much literature is frivolous in nature. The following have some useful information and have been used in the preparation of the present article:
Scroggie, Jean. "Now wash your hands" Sunday telegraph magazine (1 February 1987).
Reyburn, Wallace. Flushed with pride : the story of Thomas Crapper. New edition. (London: Pavilion Books, 1989), p.79-82.
Monumenta chartae papyraceae cloacales historiam illustrantia (Toilet Paper Publications Society) In preparation.
For the last quarter of a century I have devoted much of my life to an attempt to ensure that cloacopapyrology is accepted as a serious academic discipline. From the time that I mounted the first samples of inscribed toilet paper in my albums in the late 1960s, I realised the cultural significance of the material I was collecting, but it has been an uphill struggle to persuade others of its value.
My first attempt was in the pages of She magazine in March 1970 following an uninformed article that had been published. The resulting correspondence included a letter signed "twelve office girls" who expressed themselves as "extremely sorry for you indulging in your pathetic hobby". In December 1976 my message fell on more receptive ears when I delivered the Christmas lecture at the Ephemera Society. In fact I owe the Society and especially its Vice-President Maurice Rickards an immense debt for their encouragement over the years. In 1980, deemed by the Society to be the Year of Ephemera, samples from my collection were exhibited in Bexley Libraries.
The 1980s was a decade of consolidation during which most of the techniques of cloacopapyrology were refined. These were based partly on the practices of analytical bibliography, with other elements taken from fields such as philately. It now became possible to describe the various methods used to separate sheets of paper (such as perforations of varying gauges or dog-tooth rouletting) in a manner that could be internationally accepted, and progress was also made in drawing up standards for transcribing inscriptions. Some attempt was also made to research the history of toilet paper and a computer database of manufacturers was compiled. This has made possible the dating of surviving early specimens in several collections.
In December 1990 the results of this decade of research were summarised by me in an article in The ephemerist and this led to a belated growth of interest in cloacopapyrology. Copies of the article were requested from as far away as the Semmelweis University of Medicine in Budapest, my collection was featured in an article in The independent on 8 September 1990 and this led to an interview on the John Taynton show on BBC radio later that month. It also led to a brief appearance on prime-time television in June 1992. The fact that it was on "Noel's addicts", fronted by the entertainer Noel Edmonds, rather than "Arena" or the Open University shows that cloacopapyrology still has a long way to go before it is taken seriously. Radio is not so much a prey to the trivialisation resulting from an obsession with viewing ratings and toilet paper had a whole programme to itself in the Radio 4 series "Keep it clean" in September 1992. This shows that things may be looking up for cloacopapyrologists - which is as it should be in an age of post-structuralist relativism where the subject should be seen as an area of research with a validity as great as the critical study of the classic writers of literature. After all, it shares many features with the world of books - censorship (the controversy of the Romany toilet roll in 1990), propaganda (its use in both World Wars), as well as questions of style and typography for example. So far, though, academic institutions have been too elitist to show any interest in setting up a research institute, nor has any sponsorship been forthcoming from industry to promote research in this field.
And there is much that remains to be done. Our knowledge of the early techniques of production is equivalent to that in historical bibliography before the work of pioneers such as R.B.McKerrow. There is a need for a wide-ranging patent search and for the investigation of manufacturers' archives. International surveys must be urgently undertaken to locate examples of cloacopapyrological incunabula - 1914 being a suitable cut-off date for toilet paper. No time must be wasted as the paper used frequently has a low pH value and a programme of deacidification should be undertaken. Efforts must be made to achieve the publication of the monograph series Monumenta chartae papyraceae cloacales historiam illustrantia for which material continues to accumulate and there is a need for a digitsation programme to capture and provide access to the inscrptions on this impermanent medium.
I hope that I have the credentials to be taken seriously. Besides the years I have devoted to my collection, which now has several hundred samples covering a range of countries and a number of decades, I have a range of more orthodox bibliographical publications to my credit, covering the history of the London, provincial and more specifically the Devon book trades, and have spent many years as a librarian in local studies collections. These experiences have convinced me of the importance of the minutiae of printed ephemera in building up a full picture of society in the past. If this, the most ephemeral of ephemera, cannot form a part of this picture, it is a sad reflection on the narrow vision of the academic world.
Note: This paper is a revised version of the one prepared for the Ephemera Society in 1992.
This page last updated 25 Jan 2001
© Ian Maxted, 2001.
10 December 2005
This page is one of a series of county listings which are being developed to bring together biographical information relating to localities throughout the British Isles which is currently scattered in other sections of the Exeter Working papers. They are not intended as exhaustive listings. The main sources covered are bankruptcy notices 1731-1806, apprenticeships 1710-1777 and insurance policies 1775-1787. Other information is being added and entries amalgamated as information is available. In Surrey there is a particularly full listing of the Croydon book trades to about 1860. Names towards the end of the list have not yet been amalgamated.
CROYDON. Directories searched: Universal British: c.1793U; Holden: 1799H, 1802H, 1805H, 1809H, 1811H; Underhill: 1817U, 1822U; Pigot: 1823P, 1824P, 1826P, 1832P, 1839P; Robson: 1838R; Kelly: 1845K, 1851K; Hodson: 1855H; Gray: 1851G, 1853G, 1859G, 1861G.
Appleby, Walford, engraver to calico printers, Croydon, North End 1832P-1839P. Died 19 Nov. 1867 aged 81. Wife Mary died 15 Feb. 1857, aged 67, both buried St. James's Churchyard. Lived for many years at what is now 45, North End. See also Thrale and Appleby. Source: Croydon in the past 70.
Butt, Jane, stationer and milliner, Croydon: South End, High Street 1838R; High Street 1839P1-145P. Only described as stationer in 1838R. Mary Ann Butt, milliner, listed in Coomb Street 1832P, possibly the same as Ann Butt, wife of William George, blacksmith who died 1 June 1882 aged 66, bur. St. Peter's Churchyard. Source: Croydon in the past 90.
Chapman, James Edward, toy dealer, stationer and brush seller, Croydon: High Street 1832P. Described as pastry cook and confectioner, High Street 1845K. Possibly the same as James Chapman, died 24 Mar. 1852 aged 80, bur. St. John's Churchyard. Source: Croydon in the past 31.
Durban, Frederick John, bookseller, bookbinder, newsagent, Croydon: High Street 1838R-1839P, 1851K; George Street 1845K; Chapel Path 1857; side of Town Hall 1851G; 48, North End 1853G; 22, Tamworth Road 1853G; 85, North End 1859G; 106, High Street 1861G-1873. Died 4 Apr. 1873, bur. Croydon Cemetery. Agent for Mutual Insurance Benefit Institution 1839P. Pensioned letter carrier and one of the most extensive newsagents in Croydon. Source: Croydon in the past 139.
Gray and Warren, printers, booksellers, music sellers, stationers, newsagents, Croydon: 131, High Street 1855H-1861G. Subscription library, stamp office, stereoscopic circulating library, pianoforte tuners, agents to Norwich Union Fire and Life Insurance Co., publishers of Croydon directory 1859G. Adverts 1859G, pp. 192, 212, 222-3, 236, 242-4; 1861G pp. 237-8, 252, 260-1, 265, 277, 279.
Gray, John, printer, bookseller, music seller, stationer, news vendor, circulating library, Croydon: 131, High Street 1845K-1853G. Born 2 Jun. 1807; died 20 May 1877, bur. Croydon Cemetery. Appriaser to trade 1845K. Stamp office, agent for Norwich Union 1851G. Adverts 1851G pp. 159, 197, 202, 204; 1853G pp. 193, 205, 216, 228. Retired to Buckland Lodge. Source: Croydon in the past 180.
Harding, Timothy, printer, bookseller, stationer, Croydon: 1793U-1823P; High Street 1823P. Died 13 Jan. 1825 aged 76, buried St. John's Churchyard. Premises named as Minervas Office 1822U. Kept circulating librasry, mainly jobbing work. Author of Beauties of Sanderstead. Source: Croydon in the past 41.
Markby, Frederick, bookseller, stationer, library, Croydon: High Street 1832P. Died 21 May 1833, bur. St. John's Churchyard. Also stamp distributor and agent to British Insurance Co. 1832P. Source: Croydon in the past 45.
Markby, Mary Ann. Mrs, bookseller, stationer, Croydon: High Street 1838R-1845K. Died 3 Nov. 1849, aged 56, bur. St. John's Churchyard. Also stamp distributor and agent to Westminster Insurance Co. 1839P. The family's shop was at the entrance to Park Street. Source: Croydon in the past 45.
Markby, James, bookseller, stationer, circulating library, Croydon: 1793U-1823P; High Street 1805H-1823P. Died 30 Nov. 1822, aged 69, bur. St. John's Churchyard. Only described as hairdresser and peruke maker 1793U, as perfumer 1805H-1809H. Also agent to British Fire Office 1811H-1822U, stamp office 1823P. The family's shop was at the entrance to Park Street. Source: Croydon in the past 45.
Newton, Charles, bookseller, bookbinder, stationer, newsagent, Croydon: High Street 1845K; 146, High Street 1851G-1861G; Post Office 1855H; private residence 24 North End 1853G-1861G. Died 22 Apr. 1842, aged 45, bur. St. John's Churchyard. Previously corn dealer in Church Street 1823P, North End 1826P-1839P, High Street 1838R. Also coal dealer 1826P. Circulating library and depot for Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 1851K. Agent to Union Insurance 1851G. Source: Croydon in the past 52.
Parker, James, newsvendor, tobacconist, Croydon: Church Street 1845K, 26, Church Street 1851K, 27, Church Street 1851G-1859G. Died 28 Mar 1860, aged 47, bur. St. James Churchyard. South Eastern Gazette agency 1851G-1859G. Succeeded by widow. Source: Croydon in the past 67
Roffey, Henry, bookseller, Croydon: 1881-82. Died 10 Nov 1881, aged 31, bur. St. Peter's Churchyard. A young man of great promise. He had only (on his marriage with Miss Entwistle) taken over the business of Mr. Francis Warren, booksellers, about 12 months befpore his lamented death. Source: Croydon in the past 75
Spiers, George, newsagent, Croydon: 23, High Street 1859G. Died 1 Oct 1859, aged 28, bur. St. James's Churchyard. Agent to Surrey Gazette. Was to have become reporter to a Lewes paper. Source: Croydon in the past 64
Thrale, Ralph, engraver, whitesmith and bellhanger, Croydon: Butcher Row 1832P. Died 21 June 1843, aged 62, bur. St. John's Churchyard. Succeeded Peter Pidgeon as trunkmaker in Scarbrook Hill 1829, disposed of business to Hammond & Purrott. See also Walford Appleby. Listed as ironmonger in Surrey Street 1838R. Source: Croydon in the past 53.
Weller, Thomas, bookseller, stationer, music seller, newsvendor etc, Croydon: High Street 1823P-1839P, 2 High Street 1851G-1859G. At various times also described as perfumer, toy dealer, pianoforte seller. Active as watch and clock maker from 1802H. Agent for Surrey Standard, local secretary for Art Union, agent for Imperial life, St. Anne's Society Schools. Adverts 1853G, p. 200, 1859G, p. 203, 1861G, p. 251.
Wildgoose, George, stationer, Croydon: 1793U. Died 26 Feb 1806, aged 61, bur. St. John's Churchyard. Listed as surveyor, his main occupation, 1802H. Widow Anne died 9 July 1824 aged 84. Source: Croydon in the past 14
This page last updated 27 Feb 2005
© Ian Maxted, 2005.
This page is one of a series of county listings which are being developed to bring together biographical information relating to localities throughout the British Isles which is currently scattered in other sections of the Exeter Working papers. They are not intended as exhaustive listings. The main sources covered are bankruptcy notices 1731-1806, apprenticeships 1710-1777 and insurance policies 1775-1787. The main source for Cornwall is R. A. J. Potts, 'Early Cornish printers, 1740-1850', Royal Institution of Cornwall, New series , vol. 4 (1963), p. 264-325. Information from this has not been fully incorporated.
BODMIN. Cornwall. Pop. 1801: 2299. Pop. 1811: 2383. No book trade in Bailey 1784. Not in Holden 1811
Bodmin. Ley. 1789. Newsagent. Takes in advertisements for Brice's old Exeter journal 19 Feb 1789.
Bodmin. Liddell, James. 1790-1803.Printer, bookseller & bookbinder. Bodmin 1790-95. Imprints: Imprints: 1790-1803. . Sources: Universal British Directory.
Camborne. Newton, Llewellyn. 1815-1853Printer. Camborne. Succeeded William Penaluna as printer of Lean's engine reporter 1815-1853. Sources: Brown, Roly, Some Cornish printers
Camelford. Pearce. 1789. Newsagent. Takes in advertisements for Brice's old Exeter journal 19 Feb 1789.
FALMOUTH. Cornwall Pop. 1801: 4849 Pop. 1811: 5307.
Falmouth. Allinson, Matthew. 1750-94.Printer, bookseller and bookbinder. Falmouth: Market Strand 1750-94. Died 1794, bur. Falmouth parish church 9 Feb. Apprentice Young, Andrew, £10/10/00, 1752 IR/1/51, fo. 221. Apprentice Elliott, Philip, £10/10/00, 1762 IR/1/23, fo. 128. Apprentice Elliott, Jacob, £10/10/00, 1765 IR/1/24, fo. 176. Advertised in book as selling Bibles &c. 1750. Mentioned in EFP 8 Jan 1773. Imprints: 1752: Southcomb, Lewis, The Christian's peculiar character ; 1753: Walker, Samuel, A sermon preached in Truro ; 1769: Turner, John, A sermon ; 1770: Vivian, Thomas, An exposition of the catechism ; 1773: Puddicombe, William, The mariner's instructor ; 1776: Peters, Charles, Sermons . Sources: Plomer; Dredge 25, 29, 30, 106.
Falmouth. Brougham, Frances1822-1828. Printer. Falmouth, 1822-1828. Married: Matthew Brougham, printer. Succeeded husband on death in 1822. British Library HS.74/2008 includes: Lines written on the death of Miss Catharine Fox, of Grove Hill, Falmouth , signed Mary Gidley, Falmouth, October 11th 1823. Sources: Potts, R.A.J., 'Early Cornish printers, 1740-1850', Royal Institution of Cornwall, New series, 4 (1963), 264-325 ; British Book Trade Index.
Falmouth. Brougham, Matthew 1813-1823. Printer. Falmouth, 1813-1823 ; Church Street. Born: 1752. Married: Frances. Died: 1822. Also Customs Collector. Came to Cornwall from Warrington. Successor to Samuel Harris 1813. Lottery agent WL 3/1/1815. Widow Frances Brougham continued the business. British Library HS.74/2008 includes: A very striking and interesting account of the melancholy accident which happened by fire in the parish of St. Buryan, 23rd February 1817 . Sources: Potts, R.A.J., 'Early Cornish printers, 1740-1850', Royal Institution of Cornwall, New series, 4 (1963), 264-325325 ; Maxted, Ian, Newspaper Readership in South West England: an analysis of the Flindell's Western Luminary subscription list of 1815 (Exeter Working paper No. 9) ; British Book Trade Index.
Falmouth. Cormac. Printer. Falmouth 1785. Not in Bailey 1784. Sources: Pendred.
Falmouth. Dixon, John. Stationer & music seller. Falmouth 1811. Sources: Holden's directory.
Falmouth. Doherty, Elizabeth. 1811. Stationer. Falmouth 1811. Sources: Holden's directory.
Falmouth. Elliot, Elizabeth. 1787-1799. Printer, bookseller & stationer. Falmouth 1787-1799. Imprints: 1787: Kress B1287; 1799: A letter respectfully adddresed to the ... Bishop of Exeter... Sources: Dredge 35; Universal British Directory.
Falmouth. Elliot, Jacob. 1765. Apprentice bookseller. Falmouth 1765. Apprenticed to Allison, Mathew, £10/10/00 IR/1/24, fo. 176.
Falmouth. Elliot, Philip. Bookseller and stationer. Falmouth 1784B-1785P. Apprenticed to Allison, Mathew, £10/10/00, 1762 IR/1/23, fo. 128. - Sources: Bailey's directory ; Pendred.
Falmouth. Elliott & Cornish. Stationers. Falmouth 1811. Sources: Holden's directory.
Falmouth. Elliott, Elizabeth. 1793? Printer, bookseller & stationer. Sources: Universal British directory.
Falmouth. Ester, Martha. 1793? Bookseller & stationer. Sources: Universal British directory.
Falmouth. Flindell, T. Printer. Falmouth. Moved to Exeter. Imprints: 1800-03. Sources: ESTC.
Falmouth. Harris, Samuel. 1811. Printer & stationer. Sources: Holden's directory.
Falmouth. Heard, John. Printer & stationer. Falmouth 1808-1810 ; Truro 1810-1823. Born: 1781 in north Devon. Died: 1823. Opened printing office with William Penaluna in 1808. They were involved in the issue of a reform pamphlet which prompted the reform party to select John Heard as printer for a newspaper - the West Briton founded by Heard following the apparent demise of the only Cornish newspaper in existence, the Cornwall Gazette and Falmouth Packet, to Tory interests. Also lottery and insurance agent. Heard moved to Truro and the partnership with Penaluna was dissolved around 1811. The West Briton stayed in Heard family hands until after 1850. Sources: Brown, Roly, Some Cornish printers ; Holden.
Falmouth. Lake, James. 1807-1830, Printer, bookseller, stationer, bookbinder, circulating library. Falmouth 1807-1830 ; Commercial Printing Office, opposite Wynn's Royal Hotel 1815 ; Market Street 1823 ; opposite Royal Hotel 1830. Also insurance agent, shp owner, sailmaker, coal and general merchant. British Library HS.74/2008 includes Two new Christmas carols [Mortals awake and Behold the grace]. Succeeded by J.H. and R.G.Lake (Market Street 1844, Fish Strand 1847. Sources: Potts ; Ramsden, Charles, Bookbinders of the United Kingdom (outside London), 1780-1840 (London, 1954) ; Holden's directory 1811 ; Pigot's directory 1830, 1844.
Falmouth. Lander, Mary. 1811. Stationer. Sources: Holden's directory.
Falmouth. Penaluna & Trathan. 1811. Printers. Falmouth 1811. Partners: William Penaluna and James Trathan. Sources: Holden's directory.
Falmouth. Penaluna, William. 1808-1816. Printer, bookseller, stationer, bookbinder. Falmouth 1808-1816. Mainly worked in Helston. Opened Falmouth office with John Heard 1808-1810, with James Trathan 1811-1816.Sources: Potts ; British Book Trade Index ; Holden's directory 1811.
Falmouth. Russell, Jane. 1793? Bookseller & stationer. Sources: Universal British directory.
Falmouth. Russell, Mrs. 1789. Newsagent. Takes in advertisements for Brice's old Exeter journal 19 Feb 1789.
Falmouth. Trathan, James Jenkin. 1815-1828. Printer, bookseller, stationer, bookbinder. Falmouth 1815-1828 ; Market Strand. Died: 1828. Partner with William Penaluna 1811-1816. British Library HS.74/2008 includes: Two new Christmas carols (Hark hark what news and While shepherds watch'd) with note: "where may be had a great variety of Carols, Godly Books, and other Tracts". Succeeded by widow Jane who continued business until 1845, printing the first reports of the Royal Cornish Polytechnic Society. Sources:Potts ; trade directories ; Brown, Roly, Some Cornish printers ; Holden.
Falmouth. Walker, Ann. 1811. Stationer. Sources: Holden's directory.
Falmouth. Williams, Joseph. 1793? Printer, bookseller & stationer. Sources: Universal British directory.
Falmouth. Young, Andrew. Apprentice bookbinder. Falmouth, COR, 1752. Apprenticed to Allison, Mathew, £10/10/00 IR/1/51, fo. 221.
FOWEY. Cornwall. None in Bailey 1784. None in 1811.
Fowey. Arnley, printer. Fowey. Only known for one ballad, preserved in the Madden collection: You are My Love and Shall Be. Sources: Brown, Roly, Some Cornish printers.
Fowey. Asty, Samuel. 1793? Papermaker. Sources: Universal British directory.
HELSTON. Cornwall. Pop. 1801: 2248. Pop. 1811: 2297. Not in Pendred 1785.
Helston. Flindell, T. Printer. Helston 1798. Sources: Berry & Poole.
Helston. Head, I. Bookseller. Helston 1753. Imprint: 1753: Walker, Samuel, A sermon preached at Truro. Sources: Plomer; Dredge 25.
Helston. James, James. 1811. Scrivener, engraver & auctioneer. Sources: Holden’s directory 1811.
Helston. Matthews. Bookseller. Helston 1799. Imprint: Cardew, Cornelius, A sermon. Sources: Dredge 54.
Helston. Mitchell, James. 1793? Bookbinder. Sources: Universal British directory.
Helston. Painter, George. Bookseller. Helston 1798. Bankrupt 2 May 1797, dividend 30 Apr. 1798.
Helston. Painter, John. 1793? Printer & bookbinder. Sources: Universal British directory.
Helston. Penaluna, William. Printer, bookseller, publisher, stationer, bookbinder. Helston 1811-1855 ; Coinagehall Street 1844d ; Cross Street 1851 ; Meneage Street 1856. Born: 1 March 1780, St. Stithians. Married: Elizabeth, widow of Mr. Lemin of Binner Down, 1836. Died: Helston 1864. Lived some time in London, returned 1808 as a seller of pens, books, prints, soap, trinkets, musical instruments, patent medicines, pickles and clothes. Opened printing offce in Falmouth with John Heard, printer of the West Briton. Partnership dissolved about 1810 when Heard moved to Truro and entered partnership with John Heard. In Helston between 1811 and 1815 took over printing of Lean's Engine reporter. In Falmouth for short time as partner with James Trathan 1816. Bankrupt 1817. Attempts to publish a History of Cornwall compiled by F C Hitchens and S Drew were held up and publication wasonly in 1824. Other publications include: a volume of Excursions (1834), An historical survey of the county of Cornwall (1843), A collection of masonic songs (1809), Masonic songs, glees and duets (1824). In 1844 sold insurance for Minerva, Provident General and Westminster companies. Also mineralogist. Employed one man and one boy in 1861 census. Imprints included note: "Travellers supplied with Sheets, Half-Sheets, Tracts, Books &c." EFDSS lists 28 single sheet items in 2012. Bodleian Allegro archive broadsheet: Jesus Saviour of Mankind ... A Choice Selection of Christmas Carols, elaborately decorated, with fourteen carols. British Library HS.74/2008 has broadsheet: Pinch of snuff: an old woman to her daughter, By J. Pickford [and] The young woman's answer [and] The pilgrim's farewell to the world, From The Methodist Magazine. Sources:Potts ; Ramsden, Charles, Bookbinders of the United Kingdom (outside London), 1780-1840 (London, 1954) ; Brown, Roly, Some Cornish printers ; Holden's directory 1811 ; Pigot's directories 1830, 1844.
Helston. Woolcock, Richard. 1844-1881. Printer, bookseller, stationer and bookbinder. Helston 1844-1881 ; Meneage Street 1847-1861. Born: 1822, son of Richard and Avis. Married: Elizabeth Pearse 1849, St. Erth. Children: Sophia aged 5 months in 1851 census, six children by 1861 census. Probably recorded as apprentice bookbinder in 1841 census. Began printing 1844. Also listed as grocer in 1861 census. Still recorded as printer in 1881 census. Known as a general and commercial printer. Statements on his imprints include: "printing of every description executed at the lowest prices". "Agent for Whelpton’s celebrated Purifying and Stomach Pills, also for Kaye’s far-famed Pills" "An excellent assortment of Combs, Children’s and other books, Brooches, Rings Almanacks, Christmas Cards, Valentines, &c., &c. - A liberal allowance to Hawkers and Shopkeepers. - Printing cheaply executed. Books bound or repaired at the lowest prices." His printing is generally neat and accurate, often with decorations including fancy borders. Many of his broadsheets are unknown from other printers. EFDSS recorded 59 items in 2012, COPAC has entries c. 1845-1880. Titles recorded:
Days When We Went Gypsying
Good Templar sermons c. 1873
Lines on the Turkish atrocities [in Bulgaria 1876]
Fatal boiler explosion on board The Thunderer 25th March 1877
The dying husband’s farewell after Such of London
The Orphans after printings by J Crome in Sheffield
The Factory Chimney
The Emperor of Russia’s Last Jig
The Mother’s Dream
Money Makes the Mare to Go
The Dark-Eyed Sailor and Paul Jones
The Orphan Shepherd-Boy
The Dying Husband
The Mother’s Dream or The Whole Family Met in Heaven
The Dying Husband
Twin pieces, under the title of:
The Spiritual Railway : The Upward Line and The Downward Line
The Factory Chimney by Joseph Malins (of whom no other details have yet been found)
Eleven shillings a week
The Dark-eyed Sailor
The Dark-Eyed Sailor
The Russian Tzar’s Final Jig with a reference to the fall of Sebastopol
Going Ober de Mountain
Carols in University of Sheffield Firth collection, G67:
While shepherds Watched, Angels from the realms of glory, As I sat on a sunny bank, A virgin unspotted, Joy to the World, Hark around the cherubic legions, Awake ye nations of the Earth, Angelic messenger repeat all in one collection. Bodleian Allegro archive contains A choice variety of carols and anthems on one sheet, including: While shepherds watched, Angels from the Realms of Glory, Awake ye Nations, See they Come the Glorious Army
Sources: Potts, R.A.J., 'Early Cornish printers, 1740-1850', Royal Institution of Cornwall, New series, vol. 4 (1963), 264-325 ; British Book Trade Index ; Brown, Roly, Some Cornish printers ; Morris, John B., Provincial Printing and Publishing in Great Britain: an annotated catalogue of a collection of books and related material , 1.354.
LAUNCESTON. Cornwall.Pop. 1801:.Pop. 1811: 1758.
Launceston. Bray, Charlotte. 1809-1823.Printer, bookseller, stationer. Launceston 1809-1823. Sources: British Book Trade Index ; Holden 1811.
Launceston. Bray, Theodore. 1830-1850.Printer, bookseller, stationer. Launceston 1830-1850. Sources: British Book Trade Index.
Launceston. Bray, William Roe. 1830-1850.Printer, bookseller, stationer. Launceston 1830-1850. Sources: British Book Trade Index.
Launceston. Bray, William. 1789-1809.Printer, bookseller, stationer. Launceston 1789-1809. Single sheet item signed Bray in British Library HS.74/2008: A dialogue on Sunday morning. Sources: Universal British Directory 1794? ; British Book Trade Index.
Launceston. Cheshire, George. 1719. Bookseller?Launceston 1719. Lawsuit in PRO: Stat. Co. v. Greep (as defendant) 1719. Sources: Goulden.
Launceston. Eyre, Thomas. 1811. Stationer. Launceston 1811. Sources: Holden’s directory.
Launceston. Harvey, Agnes. 1811. Stationer. Launceston 1811. Sources: Holden’s directory.
Launceston. Manning, John. 1784-1785. Ironmonger & stationer. Sources: Bailey’s directory ; Pendred.
Launceston. Martin, Philip. 1811. Stationer. Launceston 1811. Sources: Holden’s directory.
Launceston. Martin, Robert. 1784-1795.Bookseller and stationer. Launceston 1784B-1795. Imprint: 1795: Carpenter, William, A sermon preached at Launceston. Takes in advertisements for Brice's old Exeter journal 19 Feb 1789. - Sources: Bailey's directory 1784; Pendred; Universal British Directory.
Launceston. Smithurst, Benjamin. 1700. Bookseller. Launceston 1700. B.Smithurst at Plymouth 1739. Imprint: 1700: Rossington, J., Infant-baptism. Sources: Dredge 11, 81.
LISKEARD. Cornwall. None in Bailey 1784. Not in Holden 1811. Universal British directory lists: Borrows, [textile] card maker ; Hoblyn, [textile] card maker 1794?
Lostwithiel. Bower. 1789. Newsagent. Takes in advertisements for Brice's old Exeter journal 19 Feb 1789.
Millbrook. Jordaine, John. 1756. Printer. Millbrook 1756. Imprint: 1756 [Bill]. Sources: Dredge 115.
PENRYN. Cornwall. Pop. 1801: 2324. Pop. 1811: 2713. None in Bailey 1784.
Penryn. Cock, William. 1811-1815. Printer. Penryn 1813-1816. Born: 1794. Listed as ironmonger in 1811 directory, also recorded as carpenter. Advertised for bookbinder, Western Luminary 15 June 1813. Wanted a good journeyman pressman ... apply to W.Cock printer Penryn, Trewman's Exeter Flying Post 24 Mar 1814. Subscribed to Flindell's Western luminary 1815. Went to South Africa as leader of one of the parties of 1820 settlers. Imprints: 1813-1816. . - Sources: Holden's directory 1811 ; Potts (1963) p.313, 324 ; Christine Hodges, descendant 2015.
Penryn. Dixon, James. 1811. Stationer. Sources: Holden’s directory.
Penryn. Key. 1830-1850Printer. Penryn, c. 1830-1850. Single sheet item in British Library HS.74/2008: The death-bed of the Queen; or, the last affectionate farewell of Caroline to the people of England. Poster c.1850 in Cornwall Record Office. Sources: Potts, R.A.J., 'Early Cornish printers, 1740-1850', Royal Institution of Cornwall, New series, vol. 4 (1963), 264-325.
Penryn. Leverton, James. 1795? Stationer. Sources: Universal British directory.
Penryn. Pearce, Thomas. 1811-1847. Printer, bookseller, stationer. Penryn 1811-1847 ; Lower Street 1830-1844 ; Market Street 1847. In 1823 bookseller, stationer, druggist and tallowchandler. In 1830 bookseller and printer. Also sold patent medicines. Single sheet item by Pearce in British Library HS.74/2008: The disobedient daughter [and] Life in London. Sources: Potts, R.A.J., 'Early Cornish printers, 1740-1850', Royal Institution of Cornwall, New series, vol. 4 (1963), 264-325 ; British Book Trade Index ; Morris, John B., Provincial Printing and Publishing in Great Britain: an annotated catalogue of a collection of books and related material, 1.355 ; Holden’s directory 1811 ; Pigot's directories 1823, 1830, 1844.
Penryn. Rowe, Richard. 1811. Papermaker. Sources: Holden’s directory.
Penryn. Stephens, H. 1840. Printer. Penryn, c. 1840. "Travellers supplied on the most reasonable terms." Single sheet items in British Library HS.74/2008:
The cries of a wounded conscience; or, the sorrowful sigh of James Thomson who was on board the Malta on the coast of France and died at plymouth Hospital.
Penryn. Tucker, William. 1795?-1811. Bookbinder & paper factor. Penryn 1795?-1811H. Listed as paper maker 1811.Sources: Universal British Directory; Holden.
PENZANCE. Cornwall. Pop. 1801: 3382. Pop. 1811: 4022. Not in Holden 1811.
Penzance. Hewert, John sen. 1795? Stationer. Sources: Universal British directory.
Penzance. Hewett, John jun. 1795? Stationer. Sources: Universal British directory.
Penzance. Hewett, John. Bookseller and stationer, Penzance 1769-c1795U. John sen. and jun. listed in Universal British Directory c1795. Sun policy 381943, £400, 1777. Imprints: 1769 Carew, Richard, The survey of Cornwall; 1793: Parkin, James, A sermon preached at Chulmleigh. Sources: Dredge 32; Universal British Directory.
Penzance. Mitchell/Michel, James. Bookseller. Penzance 1753-56. Imprints: 1753: Walker, Samuel, A sermon preached at Truro; 1756: Girrard, J., Practical lectures on education ; 1756: Borlase, William, Observations on ... the Islands of Scilly . Sources: Plomer; Dredge 25, 105.
Penzance. Penaluna, William. 1830. fancy stationer and toyman,Market Place, Penzance 1830. Sources: Pigot's directory 1830.
Penzance. Thomas, John. 1820-1840. Printer, bookseller, bookbinder, stationer, auctioneer. Penzance c.1820-1840 ; East Street 1823 ; Market Jew Street 1830. Born: 1773, near Penryn. Died: 1840, Penzance. Succeeded by John Thomas II (in Market Jew Street 1847). Single sheet items in British Library HS.74/2008:
On the death of His Majesty King George the Third
Lines on the death of Her Majesty Queen Caroline
A new hymn
Advice to married ladies / A receipt for married ladies [and] Fatherless Fanny [and] Female courtship
The children of Israel delivered from captivity by the hand of the Lord
Five single sheet items listed by EFDSS in 2012. Entries in COPAC c.1820-1835. Sources: Potts, R.A.J., 'Early Cornish printers, 1740-1850', Royal Institution of Cornwall, New series , vol. 4 (1963), 264-325 ; Ramsden, Charles, Bookbinders of the United Kingdom (outside London), 1780-1840 (1954) ; British Book Trade Index ; trade directories
Penzance. Vigurs. 1785-1789. Printer, newsagent. Takes in advertisements for Brice's old Exeter journal 19 Feb 1789. Penzance 1785-1789. Not in Bailey's directory 1784.Sources: Pendred.
REDRUTH. Cornwall. Pop. 1801: 3924. Pop. 1811: 5903. None in Bailey 1784. Not in Holden 1811.
Redruth. Gray, R. Bookseller. Redruth 1753. Imprint: 1753: Walker, Samuel, A sermon preached at Truro. Sources: Plomer; Dredge 25.
Redruth. Reynolds, James. 1795? Bookbinder. Sources: Universal British directory.
SAINT AUSTELL. Cornwall. Pop. 1801: 3788. Pop. 1811: 3686. None in Bailey 1784. Not in Holden 1811 Saint Austell. Nankivel. 1789. Newsagent. Takes in advertisements for Brice's old Exeter journal 19 Feb 1789.
Saint Austell. Nankivell, J. Bookseller. St. Austell 1752-53. Imprints: 1752: Southcomb, Lewis, The christian's peculiar character; 1753: Walker, Samuel, A sermon preached at Truro.. Sources: Plomer; Dredge 25.
Saint Austell. Perrow, J. Bookseller. c.1845. Single sheet items printed by Keys of Devonport listed by EFDSS. Sources: Morris, John B., Provincial Printing and Publishing in Great Britain: an annotated catalogue of a collection of books and related material, 1.355 ; British Book Trade Index
Saint Austell. Pomeroy, Walter sen. 1795? Bookseller, stationer & scrivener. Saint Austell 1795? Sources: Universal British Directory.
Saint Columb. Colwell. 1789. Newsagent. Takes in advertisements for Brice's old Exeter journal 19 Feb 1789.
Scilly Isles. Head, Isaac. Bookseller. St Mary's, Scilly 1769. Also author. Imprint: 1769: Head, Isaac, A confutation of the observations on freemasonry. Sources: Dredge 29.
Truro. Brice, Andrew. Printer. Truro 1742. Imprint: 1742: James, Nicholas, Poems on several occasions.
Truro. Brokenshir, John. 1813-1850. printer, bookseller, stationer, bookbinder. Truro 1813-1850 ; 63, Kenwyn Street 1823 ; 19, Boscawen Street 1830 ; 2 St. Nicholas Street 1844 ; Boscawen Street 1847. Married: daughter baptised 1813. Possibly father of John Brokenshir junior, also at St Agnes where an imprint is recorded c.1845. Also insurance agent. Single sheet items in British Library HS.74/2008:
Six Cornish miners
Lines written on the sudden death of Richard White ... March 10th 1823 , By Thomas Hodge, Wendron (wants an Apprentice)
Fifty-six wants of the children of Sion
A copy of verses composed on mining [and] Crucifixion hymn for Easter.
Sources: Potts, R.A.J., 'Early Cornish printers, 1740-1850', Royal Institution of Cornwall, New series , vol. 4 (1963), 264-325 ; British Book Trade Index ; trade directories
Truro. Buckland, John. 1776-1784. Stationer. Truro 1776-84. Also hornworker and haberdasher 1784 Bailey. Imprints: 1776: Peters, Charles, Sermons. Sources: Plomer; Bailey's directory 1784; Pendred; Dredge 30.
Truro. Burridge, W. Bookseller. 1845. 43 items printed by Keys of Devonport listed by EFDSS. No entries in COPAC. Sources: Morris, John B., Provincial Printing and Publishing in Great Britain: an annotated catalogue of a collection of books and related material, 1.355 ; British Book Trade Index
Truro. Chapel. Bookseller. Truro 1799. Imprint: 1799: Reece, Samuel, A selection of evangelical hymns. Sources: Dredge 91.
Truro. Collis. 1785. Printer. Truro 1785P. Not in Bailey 1784. Sources: Pendred.
Truro. Flindell, T. 1811.Newspaper printerCornwall Gazette office, 1811. Sources: Holden’s directory.
Truro. Harry, William. 1790-1811. printer, bookseller & stationer. Truro 1790-1801. Listed as Harvy by Universal British Directory c.1798. Agent to the British Fire Office 1811. Imprint: Exeter pocket journal for 1791. Sources: Universal British Directory; Holden 1811; ESTC files.
Truro. Heard, Elizabeth. 1823-1850.Printer, bookseller, stationer, bookbinder. Truro 1823-. Married: John Heard, printer. Took over as printer of West Briton newspaper after husband's death. It stayed in Heard family hands until after 1850.
Truro. Heard, John. 1810-1823. Printer, bookseller, stationer, bookbinder. Truro 1810-1823 ; 39, Boscawen Street 1810-1823. Born: 1780, north Devon. Died: 1823. Previously partner with William Penaluna in Falmouth. Moved to Truro. Printer of West Briton newspaper which stayed in Heard family hands until after 1850. When John Heard died his widow, Elizabeth took over the running of the newspaper. Also insurance and lottery agent. Sources: Potts (1963) ; British Book Trade Index ; Ramsden, Charles, Bookbinders of the United Kingdom (outside London), 1780-1840 (London, 1954) ; Brown, Roly, Some Cornish printers.
Truro. Hodgers, Richard. 1796? Papermaker. Truro 1796? Sources: Universal British directory.
Truro. Mitchell, Nicholas. 1811. Printer &c. Sources: Holden’s directory.
Truro. Painter, J. 1753-1789. Bookseller. Truro 1753-70. Imprints: 1753: Walker, Samuel, A sermon preaced in Truro; 1770: Vivian, Thomas, An exposition of the catechism. Takes in advertisements for Brice's old Exeter journal 19 Feb 1789. Sources: Plomer; Dredge 25, 29.
Truro. Tregoning and Philip. 1796? Printers & stationers, Truro 1796? Sources: Universal British directory.
Truro. Tregoning, Joseph. 1799-1811. Printer & bookseller. Truro 1799-1811. Agent to the Phoenix Fire Office 1811. Imprint: 1799: Cardew, Cornelius, A sermon. Sources: Dredge 54; Holden 1811.
Truro. Tregoning, Joseph. 1811. Printer & bookseller & agent to the Phoenix Fire Office. Sources: Holden’s directory.
This page last updated 26 February 2015
© Ian Maxted, 2005.